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DL Даташит ( PDF DL Datasheet )
As described in Section 3. Other facility wastewater, such as sanitary wastewater, is commingled with pesticide wastewater at 27 manufacturing facilities. These evaluations are discussed in detail in the following sections.
The proposed pesticide chemicals manufacturing effluent guidelines and standards are intended to control the discharge of pollutants in wastewater generated during the manufacture of PAIs from raw materials. Other reactants include acidic or basic compounds used to facilitate, catalyze, or participate in the chemical reaction for example, an acidic reaction medium may be required to ensure the desired pesticide product.
Table presents the distribution of PAIs produced by number of manufacturing facilities. When the adsorptive capacity of the carbon is exhausted, the spent carbon is either disposed of or regenerated, the choice generally to be determined by economics.
Pesticide active ingredients may also be used as raw materials in manufacturing derivative PAIs typically through the formation of various salts and esters. Moreover, alternative technologies could be selected by dischargers. EPA is not selecting 95 priority pollutants for regulation, and the reason for excluding or not regulating each of these pollutants is discussed below. EPA requested comments dwtasheet the data. Thirty-four of the 55 facilities submitted priority pollutant data, and 49 facilities submitted vl703 for PAIs.
Many pesticides contain more than one functional group, such as halogens, phosphorous, sulfur, nitrogen, etc.
Questionnaires also request financial and economic data for use in assessing economic impacts and the economic achievability of technology options. This section also discusses the development of effluent limitations guidelines and standards for PAIs and priority pollutants in Subcategory A of the pesticide chemicals manufacturing industry.
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Notice of Availability NOA Commenters criticized the proposed subcategorization scheme on the grounds that 1 the priority pollutant PAI combination were often inaccurate, datashert subcategorization by treatment technology assumed a technology would be used when an alternative technology could be used, and 3 the subcategorization scheme projected was overly complex and possibly unworkable.
The Agency evaluated these data extensively in the course of developing limitations as discussed in Section 7. The Facility Census also identified eight metallo-organic pesticide manufacturers and 86 organic pesticide manufacturers four facilities manufacture both metallo-organic and organic pesticides.
Hexachloroethane N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine Endrin aldehyde Heptachlor epoxide 1,1,2-Trichloroethylene 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol EPA is not regulating the following priority pollutants due to lack of treatability data. In addition to the data submitted in response to the survey, the Agency reviewed and considered long-term data from six plants from the earlier EPA survey containing data from the mid- to late s. Therefore, a total of individual PAIs are being considered for potential regulation.
General factors included in the selection of specific PAIs for use in the synthetic wastewaters were the availability of an analytical method for the specific PAI and the ready availability of the PAI in a pure form from either datazheet or commercial sources. Control of pH is important regardless of the final disposition of the wastewater stream e.
Of the reported manufacturing processes used to produce pesticides inwere batch processes. The types of treatment technologies effective for treating wastewater from metallo-organic wastewaters are different from those technologies used to treat organic pesticide chemicals, due to the higher concentrations of metals and metallo-organic compounds in wastewaters from metallo-organic pesticide chemicals.
The priority pollutant characterization data presented in this section for organic and metallo-organic pesticide process wastewaters were used by EPA to evaluate which priority pollutants should be regulated.
PSNS for PAIs and priority pollutants in the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory are shown in Tables andrespectively.
PAI process datasbeet water leaving ld703 manufacturing process. Other facilities implemented solvent extraction to recover raw materials, intermediates, or products from wastewater streams for reuse within the process, and recycle of process waters, in order to minimize the discharge of pollutants from the manufacturing process.
Continuous Processes Batch processes are those in which raw materials and reagents are added to a reactor, a reaction occurs, and then product is removed from the reactor. Datashee the cost of controlling those volatile toxic pollutants is added to the cost of alkaline chlorination, the total cost for chlorination may exceed the cost of ozone oxidation. The Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals ordered datashet Overall, EPA datasheey not believe that plant size is an appropriate method of subcategorization for the pesticide chemicals manufacturing industry.
For example, a facility may manufacture two PAIs using the same equipment with one PAI manufactured during the spring and the other manufactured during the fall. Given these ratios, a facility will achieve a perfect water balance if 1 pound of phenoxy salts are produced for every 6. There are no facilities that discharge process wastewater resulting from the manufacture of organo-arsenic, organo-copper, or organo- mercury PAIs directly to receiving streams. A total of 60 unique priority pollutants vatasheet known or believed present in wastewaters associated with datssheet production of 83 PAIs at these 47 facilities.
However, much of these data were not useful in characterizing pesticide process wastewaters. Other sources cited above see Section 3. Nabam, also datzsheet in Figureis discussed later in this section. The costs to upgrade current facility treatment systems to comply with the proposed regulations are discussed in Section 8.
The census data suggest that a “typical” facility reported manufacturing one active ingredient inwas the only facility in the country producing that PAI, produced between 1, and 10, pounds total pesticide datasheett ingredient for the year, also manufactured OCPSF compounds, and conducted PFP operations.
Activated Carbon Adsorption Activated carbon datashet isotherm tests were performed on 29 selected PAIs chosen from the list of PAIs considered for regulation grouped according to their production volume. The drinking water standard for microbial contamination is based on coliform bacteria. At sampling points following commingling of other industry-related wastewaters, however, it was not possible to attribute these pollutants solely to the pesticide processes.